Looking for the best way to polish your jewelry? Check out our buyer’s guide on magnetic tumbler jewelry polishers! In this article, we will discuss the different features of these polishers and help you decide which one is right for you. We will also provide a few tips on how to use them effectively. So whether you are a beginner or an experienced jewelry maker, read on for the information you need to make the best purchase!
|BestEquip Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher 2000 RPM Finisher 3.3 LBS Capacity, 1-60 min Time Control for Jewelry (KT185)||
Premium Polishing Barrel
|IRONWALLS Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher, 2000RPM 600g Cleaning Capacity Magnetic Polisher Finisher with 7.1”/180mm||
Fine & Harmless Polishing Method
|YHAspace Jewelry Magnetic Polisher Tumbler Mini Magnetic Grinding and Polishing Machine 4 Speeds Adjustable||
BestEquip Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher 2000 RPM Finisher 3.3 LBS Capacity, 1-60 min Time Control for Jewelry (KT185) – Best Seller
This BestEquip magnetic tumbler jewelry polisher is a great choice for anyone who wants to clean and polish their jewelry. It has a 2000 RPM motor and a capacity of up to three pounds. The unit also features a time control function so you can set it for anywhere from one to 60 minutes. This makes it very versatile and perfect for both small and large pieces of jewelry. The unit is also very easy to use and comes with a detailed instruction manual.
Overall, this is an excellent choice for anyone who wants a high-quality jewelry polisher that is easy to use and versatile. It would make a great addition to any jewelry collection.
- High quality
- Easy to use
- Comes with an instruction manual
- Some reviewers noted that the unit is a bit loud. However, most found that it was not too bothersome and did not affect the quality of the polishing.
Yes, this is a great choice for anyone looking for an easy to use and versatile jewelry polisher. It would make a great addition to any jewelry collection.
IRONWALLS Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher, 2000RPM 600g Cleaning Capacity Magnetic Polisher Finisher with 7.1”/180mm – Premium Polishing Barrel
The IRONWALLS Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher is a great choice for anyone looking for a quality magnetic polisher. It has a 2000 RPM motor and a 600 g cleaning capacity, making it perfect for polishing small to medium sized pieces of jewelry. Additionally, the unit comes with a seven-inch (180 mm) polishing barrel, making it easy to reach tight spaces.
One of the best features of this unit is its magnetic design. This helps to keep the polishing media in place, ensuring that your jewelry gets a thorough polish. Additionally, the unit’s size makes it perfect for use on a workbench or countertop.
- Magnetic design keeps polishing media in place
- 2000 RPM motor
- 600 g cleaning capacity
- Comes with a seven-inch (180 mm) polishing barrel
- Some users have reported that the unit is noisy
- Some users have reported that thepolishing media does not stay in place as well as they would like
Overall, the IRONWALLS Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher is a great choice for anyone looking for a quality magnetic polisher. It has a 2000 RPM motor and a 600 g cleaning capacity, making it perfect for polishing small to medium sized pieces of jewelry. Additionally, the unit comes with a seven-inch (180 mm) polishing barrel, making it easy to reach tight spaces.
YHAspace Jewelry Magnetic Polisher Tumbler Mini Magnetic Grinding and Polishing Machine 4 Speeds Adjustable – Fine & Harmless Polishing Method
This mini magnetic polisher tumbler is ideal for grinding and polishing small jewelry pieces. It features four adjustable speeds, making it perfect for a variety of different materials. The tumbler also has a built-in timer, so you can easily keep track of your work.
- Four adjustable speeds
- Built-in timer
- Tends to overheat
If you’re looking for a small, affordable magnetic polisher tumbler, the YHAspace Jewelry Magnetic Polisher Tumbler is a great option. It’s perfect for polishing small jewelry pieces, and it comes with four adjustable speeds and a built-in timer. However, it is noisy and tends to overheat, so keep that in mind before you purchase.
How do you use a Magnetic Tumbler?
First, you need to add your jewelry piece and polishing media to the tumbler. Then, you’ll need to fill the tumbler with water until it covers the jewelry. Finally, you’ll need to turn on the tumbler and let it run for the recommended amount of time.
After the tumbler has finished running, you’ll need to remove your jewelry and rinse it off. You may also need to buff your jewelry piece with a soft cloth to bring out its shine.
Magnetic tumblers are a great way to polish your jewelry pieces without using harsh chemicals. This method is perfect for those who want to avoid damage to their jewelry or to the environment.
If you’re looking for a magnetic tumbler, we’ve got the best ones on the market, right here.
What is a Magnetic pin finisher for?
A Magnetic pin finisher is a piece of jewelry that uses magnets to hold onto pins in order to finish the jewelry. This type of polisher is used to remove any sharp edges on the jewelry and give it a more polished look.
There are two types of magnetic pin finishers: those that use a rotating disk and those that don’t. The disks are used to keep the jewelry from getting tangled in the magnets, while the non-rotating type uses a stationary plate.
Why would you want to use a Magnetic Tumbler?
A Magnetic Tumbler can save you a lot of time and effort when polishing jewelry. It is a very efficient way to polish jewelry, especially if you have a lot of pieces to polish. A Magnetic Tumbler will also give your jewelry a much brighter and shinier finish than if you were topolish it by hand.
If you are looking for a Magnetic Tumbler, there are a few things to keep in mind. First, you want to make sure that the Magnetic Tumbler you choose is powerful enough to do the job. Second, you want to make sure that it is easy to use. And third, you want to make sure that it is durable and will last for a long time.
What is Magnetic polishing?
Magnetic polishing is a process where jewelry is polished using magnetic forces. This type of polishing is very effective at removing scratches and other imperfections from jewelry. Magnetic polishers work by using two magnets, one to hold the piece of jewelry in place and the other to spin the jewelry around. The spinning action of the second magnet creates a polishing effect that removes scratches and other imperfections from the jewelry.
Magnetic polishers are very popular among jewelers because they are very effective at polishing jewelry. However, there are some drawbacks to using magnetic polishers. One of the biggest disadvantages is that magnetic polishers can damage delicate gemstones. If you are going to use a magnetic polisher on gemstone jewelry, it is important to be very careful and use the lowest setting possible.
Another disadvantage of magnetic polishers is that they can be very messy. The magnets can easily become covered in polish and dust, which can be difficult to clean off. If you are going to use a magnetic polisher, it is important to make sure that you have a good amount of space to work in and that you are prepared to deal with the mess.
Overall, magnetic polishers are a great option for jewelry polishing. They are very effective at removing scratches and other imperfections from jewelry. However, there are some disadvantages to using them. If you are going to use a magnetic polisher, it is important to be very careful and use the lowest setting possible. Additionally, magnetic polishers can be very messy. If you are going to use one, it is important to make sure that you have a good amount of space to work in and that you are prepared to deal with the mess.
Thank you for reading! We hope this guide was helpful. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to reach out to us.
How do I choose a Jewelry Tumbler?
Choosing the right jewelry tumbler can be tricky. There are many factors to consider, such as price, features, and quality. In this buyer’s guide, we will help you choose the best jewelry tumbler for your needs.
First, you need to decide what type of tumbler you need. There are two main types of tumblers: rotary and vibratory.
Rotary tumblers are the most common type of tumbler. They work by rotating the material inside the tumbler, which polishes the jewelry. Rotary tumblers are usually more expensive than vibratory tumblers, but they are also more effective.
Vibratory tumblers work by vibrating the material inside the tumbler. This action polishes the jewelry without damaging it. Vibratory tumblers are less expensive than rotary tumblers, but they are not as effective.
Next, you need to decide what size tumbler you need. Tumblers come in a variety of sizes, from small to large. The size of the tumbler you need depends on the amount of jewelry you want to polish at one time.
Finally, you need to decide what features you want in your tumbler. Some tumblers have timers, which allow you to set the tumbler to turn off automatically. Other tumblers have stainless steel bowls, which are more durable than plastic bowls.
Once you have considered all of these factors, you will be able to choose the best jewelry tumbler for your needs. With the right tumbler, you can keep your jewelry looking its best.
If you’re looking for a great jewelry tumbler, check out the best ones below.
What is a gold magnet?
A gold magnet is a type of magnet that is specifically designed to attract and hold onto small pieces of gold. They are often used by prospectors and miners to help separate gold from other materials in the dirt, sand, and gravel. Gold magnets can also be used to remove unwanted bits of gold from jewelry or other metals.
There are two main types of gold magnets: natural and man-made. Natural gold magnets are made from materials like lodestone, which is a type of naturally magnetized rock. Man-made gold magnets are usually made from rare earth metals, which are extremely strong and durable.
Gold magnets come in a variety of sizes and shapes, and can be found at most hardware stores or online. Prices for gold magnets vary depending on the size and strength of the magnet, but they are typically very affordable.
When using a gold magnet, it is important to be careful not to lose any small pieces of gold that become attached to it. It is also important to keep the magnet away from computers and other electronic devices, as the magnetism can damage these items.
What is Magnetic Tumbler?
A magnetic tumbler is a type of jewelry polisher that uses magnets to move the pieces of jewelry around while they are being polished. This type of polisher is usually used for delicate or fragile pieces of jewelry that cannot be placed in a traditional tumbler.
Magnetic tumblers work by suspending the jewelry in a solution of water and polishing compound. The magnets in the tumbler create a rotating field that moves the jewelry around, allowing it to be evenly polished.
There are many different brands and models of magnetic tumblers on the market, so it is important to do your research before purchasing one. This buyer’s guide will help you choose the best magnetic tumbler for your needs.
Why are my tumbled rocks not shiny?
If your tumbled rocks are not shiny, it could be because you are using the wrong type of tumbler or the wrong type of media. If you are using a rotary tumbler, make sure you are using ceramic media. If you are using a vibratory tumbler, make sure you are using stainless steel shot.
How do I polish rocks with a tumbler?
The best way to polish rocks with a tumbler is to use a rotary tumbler with ceramic media. First, add your rocks and media to the tumbler barrel. Then, add water and enough grit to cover the rocks. Turn on the tumbler and let it run for 24 hours. After 24 hours, drain the water and add new water and grit. Run the tumbler for another 24 hours. Repeat this process until the rocks are polished.
What is the best media to use in a Tumbler?
There are many types of media that can be used in a tumbler, but the most common and effective type is stainless steel shot. Stainless steel shot is available in a variety of sizes, so you can choose the size that best suits your needs. The smaller the beads, the faster they will work to polish your jewelry.
Another type of media that can be used in a tumbler is ceramic media. Ceramic media is less common than stainless steel shot, but it is still an effective option for polishing jewelry. Ceramic media is available in a variety of sizes and shapes, so you can choose the size and shape that best suits your needs.
One type of media that you should avoid using in a tumbler is sand. Sand can damage the jewelry and it is not as effective at polishing as other types of media.
How long should you tumble Jewelry?
The answer to this question depends on what you are trying to achieve and the type of jewelry you are polishing. For most people, tumbling for an hour or two is sufficient to achieve a nice shine. If you are looking for a high-gloss finish, you may need to tumble for longer. Some people also like to add a second step of hand-polishing after tumbling to really make their jewelry shine.
Tumbling is a great way to clean and polish jewelry, but it is important to remember that it is not a replacement for professional cleaning and care. Tumbling will not remove all dirt and debris from your jewelry, so it is still important to clean your jewelry regularly.
If you have any questions about tumbling jewelry, feel free to ask in the comments below! Thanks for reading!
Will a magnet pick up 14k gold?
The answer is no, 14k gold is not magnetic. The same goes for 18k gold and 24k gold. Pure gold is not attracted to magnetic fields, but if you have a piece of jewelry that is made of 14k gold or higher, it may contain other metals that are attracted to magnets.
If you’re unsure whether or not your gold is real, you can always take it to a local jeweler and have it tested.
If you’re interested in learning more about magnets and how they work, check out our blog post on the subject.
Thanks for reading! We hope this guide was helpful. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to reach out to us. We’re always happy to help.
Will a magnet pick up gold or silver?
The simple answer is no, a magnet will not pick up gold or silver. In fact, most precious metals are not magnetic. However, there are some alloys of rare-earth metals that are slightly magnetic.
If you think your item may be made of one of these alloys, you can test it with a strong magnet. If the magnet does not stick to your item, it is most likely made of a precious metal.
If you’re still not sure, the best way to determine the type of metal your item is made of is to take it to a professional jeweler or metalsmith for testing. They will be able to identify the metal and tell you whether or not it is a precious metal.
Is it real gold if it sticks to a magnet?
If you’re new to the world of gold jewelry, you might be wondering if your piece is the real deal. After all, one of the easiest ways to test for fake gold is by using a magnet. If your gold jewelry sticks to the magnet, it’s not actually made of solid gold.
So, what is solid gold? Pure gold is 24 karats, while 18 karats equals 75% pure gold. Anything less than 14 karats is not solid gold, but instead is an alloy made up of different metals.
If your jewelry is made of an alloy, it’s not necessarily a bad thing. In fact, most gold jewelry on the market today is made of an alloy for durability purposes. However, if you’re looking for solid gold jewelry, be sure to check the karat weight before making your purchase.
How do you get super shiny rocks?
You can get super shiny rocks by polishing them with a magnetic tumbler jewelry polisher. This type of polisher uses magnets to rotate the rocks inside a chamber, which creates a friction that buffs and shines the rocks.
If you’re interested in purchasing a magnetic tumbler jewelry polisher, there are a few things you should keep in mind. First, consider the size of the unit. Some models are small enough to fit on a countertop, while others are larger and require their own dedicated space.
Next, think about the type of rocks you’ll be polishing. Some units are designed for larger rocks, while others work better with smaller stones. You’ll also want to make sure that the unit you select is durable enough to stand up to repeated use.
Finally, consider your budget. Magnetic tumbler jewelry polishers range in price from around $100 to more than $1000. Choose the unit that fits your needs and budget.
By following these tips, you can find the best magnetic tumbler jewelry polisher for your needs. With this type of polisher, you can get super shiny rocks that will look great in any setting.
Not only does using a magnetic tumbler give your rocks a beautiful shine, but it also protects them from damage. The rotating action of the magnets inside the chamber helps to remove any dirt or debris that could scratch or dull the surface of your rocks.
If you’re ready to get started polishing your rocks, check out our selection of the best magnetic tumbler jewelry polishers. We’ve got a unit for every need and budget, so you can find the perfect one for your collection. Start buffing and shining your rocks today!
Can I turn my rock Tumbler off at night?
Yes, you can turn your rock Tumbler off at night. You should unplug it and allow it to cool down before storing it in a cool, dry place.
Do I need to add water to my magnetic tumbler?
Yes, you will need to add water to your magnetic tumbler. The amount of water you need to add will depend on the size of your tumbler and the type of rocks you are using.
What type of rocks can I use in my magnetic tumbler?
You can use any type of rock in your magnetic tumbler. The most popular types of rocks to use are quartz, agate, and jasper.
Can I use my magnetic tumbler to polish metal?
Yes, you can use your magnetic tumbler to polish metal. The most popular type of metal to polish with a magnetic tumbler is stainless steel.
What to spray on rocks to make them shiny?
There are a number of ways to make rocks shine. You can use a rock tumbler, or you can sand and polish them by hand. However, if you don’t have the time or patience for either of those methods, you can also use a commercial rock polish.
Commercial rock polishes are available in both spray and liquid form. They usually contain carnauba wax, which gives rocks a deep, lustrous shine. You can find these polishes at most hardware stores or online.
To use a commercial rock polish, simply spray or apply it to the rocks you want to shine. Then, buff them with a soft cloth until they are shining. You can also use a rotary tool with a polishing attachment to speed up the process.
With a little elbow grease, you can make any rock shine like new!
Can you reuse rock tumbling media?
Yes, you can reuse rock tumbling media, but there are a few things to keep in mind. First, inspect your media before reusing it. If any of the pieces are chipped or broken, discard them. Second, consider what type of media you’re using. Some types, like silicon carbide grit, break down over time and won’t be as effective the second time around. Third, think about how long you tumbled your rocks for the first time. If you tumbled them for a long time, the media might be worn down and not as effective.Fourth, remember to clean your rock tumbling barrel before reuse. Any residual grit or debris can contaminate your media and rocks.
If you decide to reuse your rock tumbling media, start by adding fresh water to the barrel. Next, add your rocks and media. If you’re using a rotary tumbler, add enough water so that the rocks and media are covered. If you’re using a vibratory tumbler, add enough water so that the rocks are covered but the media is not. Run the tumbler for the same amount of time as you did the first time.
How long does tumbling media last?
The life of your tumbling media depends on a few factors. The hardness of the rocks you’re tumbling, how often you use your tumbler, and what type of media you’re using all play a role in how long it will last.
For example, if you’re only tumbling soft rocks like opals, your media will last much longer than if you’re tumbling harder rocks like quartz. In general, softer rocks require less time in the tumbler, so your media will last longer.
If you use your tumbler frequently, your media will wear out more quickly than if you only use it occasionally. The type of media you choose also makes a difference.
Natural media like river sand or crushed walnut shells last longer than synthetic media like ceramic beads. If you’re looking for the longest lasting tumbling media, choose natural materials.
How often you need to replace your tumbling media depends on how often you use your tumbler and what type of rocks you’re tumbling. In general, you should be able to get several months of use out of a single batch of media.
If you use your tumbler frequently or tumble hard rocks, you may need to replace your media more often. Soft rocks and infrequent use will prolong the life of your tumbling media.
Can I reuse ceramic media rock tumbling?
Ceramic media can be reused multiple times, but it will eventually break down and need to be replaced. If you notice that your tumbler is not polishing as well as it used to, or if the media is starting to break into small pieces, it’s time to replace it.
To extend the life of your ceramic media, avoid tumbling rough or sharp stones. If you do tumble rough or sharp stones, inspect the media frequently and replace it when necessary.
Ceramic media is a great option for those who want to extend the life of their tumbler and save money in the long run. Just be sure to inspect it frequently and replace it when necessary.
Do you have any tips for using ceramic media? Share them in the comments below!
If you’re looking for a cheaper alternative to ceramic media, consider using steel shot. Steel shot is less expensive and can be reused multiple times, but it will not last as long as ceramic media. Inspect your steel shot frequently and replace it when necessary.
Do you have any tips for using steel shot? Share them in the comments below!
Can you put Jewelry with stones in a Tumbler?
The answer is yes, but with a few caveats. First, make sure your tumbler has room for the jewelry piece – you don’t want it banging around and getting damaged. Secondly, check that the stones are secure in their setting; if they’re loose, they could fall out and get lost in the tumbler. Finally, be aware that some stones are more delicate than others, and tumbling could damage them. If you’re unsure, err on the side of caution and don’t put those pieces in the tumbler.
Now that you know what to watch out for, go ahead and give it a try! Tumbling is a great way to clean and polish jewelry, and it’s relatively easy to do. Just make sure you pay attention to the details and you’ll be fine.
What is an advantage of tumbling jewellery?
Tumbling is a great way to clean your jewelry and make it shine. It is also a good way to polish jewelry that has become dull. Tumbling will remove tarnish from silver and gold jewelry.
Another advantage of tumbling jewelry is that it will work-harden metals such as copper, brass, and bronze. This will make your jewelry more durable and less likely to bend or break.
If you want to get the best results from tumbling, it is important to use the right type of tumbler and media. In this article, we will recommend the best magnetic tumbler jewelry polisher for you. We will also provide a buyer’s guide to help you choose the right tumbler and media for your needs.
Magnetic tumblers are the most popular type of tumbler for jewelry polishing. They are very effective at polishing jewelry and they are relatively quiet. Magnetic tumblers also have the advantage of being able to polish multiple pieces of jewelry at the same time.
The main downside of magnetic tumblers is that they are more expensive than other types of tumblers. If you are on a budget, you may want to consider a different type of tumbler.
Does tumbling work harden metal?
Tumbling does work harden metal, but it also anneals it at the same time. This makes the metal more brittle and easier to break. It is important to remember that tumbling should only be used on softer metals such as gold, silver, and copper. Harder metals such as steel will not respond well to tumbling and can actually damage the machine.
If you are looking to harden your metal, there are other methods that will be more effective. For instance, heat treating is a much better way to harden steel. However, tumbling can still be used as a first step in the process to give the metal a smooth surface.
Overall, tumbling is a great way to polish metal and give it a smooth finish. It can also work harden the metal, but this should be kept in mind when using the machine. If you are looking to harden your metal, there are other methods that will be more effective. However, tumbling can still be used as a first step in the process to give the metal a smooth surface.
Environmental Protection & Energy Saving
The jewellery polisher is made of food-grade ABS material, which is wear-resistant, corrosion-resistant and has a long service life. It can be used for about 300 hours continuously. And it will not generate high temperature or produce noise during work, providing you with a comfortable working environment.
In addition, our jewellery polisher is equipped with an intelligent temperature control device. When the temperature inside the machine exceeds 60 degrees, the machine will automatically stop working and enter the cooling state. After the temperature drops to a certain degree, it will restart automatically. This can not only protect your jewellery from being overheated and damaged, but also save energy.
If you’re using a magnetic tumbler for the first time, there are some safety tips to keep in mind. First, always wear gloves when handling the tumbler or your jewelry. Second, avoid putting your fingers near the magnet while it’s running. And finally, make sure to unplug the tumbler before cleaning it.
Now that you know the basics of how to use a magnetic tumbler, let’s take a look at some of the best jewelry polishers on the market.
The first product on our list is the Gemoro Sparkle Spa Elite. This tumbler comes with everything you need to get started, including a pair of gloves, a tumbler bowl, and a polishing pad. It also has a built-in timer so you can keep track of your progress.
How do magnetic tumblers work?
Magnetic tumblers work by using magnets to create a rotating field that polishes jewelry.
What are the benefits of using a magnetic tumbler?
The main benefit of using a magnetic tumbler is that it is much faster and easier than traditional methods of polishing jewelry. Additionally, magnetic tumblers can be used to polish a wide variety of metals, including gold, silver, and platinum.
What should I look for when purchasing a magnetic tumbler?
When purchasing a magnetic tumbler, you should look for a model that is durable and has a powerful motor. Additionally, it is important to find a tumbler that is easy to use and comes with clear instructions.
How do I care for my magnetic tumbler?
Caring for your magnetic tumbler is relatively simple. Be sure to read the instructions that come with your tumbler, and avoid using it in wet or humid conditions. Additionally, it is important to clean your tumbler after each use to prevent jewelry from tarnishing.
If you’re looking for a great way to clean and polish your jewelry, then a magnetic tumbler is a great option. These devices are relatively inexpensive and can do a great job of polishing your jewelry. However, before you buy one, it’s important to consider the factors mentioned above. This will help you choose the right model for your needs. Thanks for reading and happy shopping!
- 1 BestEquip Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher 2000 RPM Finisher 3.3 LBS Capacity, 1-60 min Time Control for Jewelry (KT185) – Best Seller
- 2 IRONWALLS Magnetic Tumbler Jewelry Polisher, 2000RPM 600g Cleaning Capacity Magnetic Polisher Finisher with 7.1”/180mm – Premium Polishing Barrel
- 3 YHAspace Jewelry Magnetic Polisher Tumbler Mini Magnetic Grinding and Polishing Machine 4 Speeds Adjustable – Fine & Harmless Polishing Method
- 4 How do you use a Magnetic Tumbler?
- 5 What is a Magnetic pin finisher for?
- 6 Why would you want to use a Magnetic Tumbler?
- 7 What is Magnetic polishing?
- 8 How do I choose a Jewelry Tumbler?
- 9 What is a gold magnet?
- 10 What is Magnetic Tumbler?
- 11 Why are my tumbled rocks not shiny?
- 12 How do I polish rocks with a tumbler?
- 13 What is the best media to use in a Tumbler?
- 14 How long should you tumble Jewelry?
- 15 Will a magnet pick up 14k gold?
- 16 Will a magnet pick up gold or silver?
- 17 Is it real gold if it sticks to a magnet?
- 18 How do you get super shiny rocks?
- 19 Can I turn my rock Tumbler off at night?
- 20 Do I need to add water to my magnetic tumbler?
- 21 What type of rocks can I use in my magnetic tumbler?
- 22 Can I use my magnetic tumbler to polish metal?
- 23 What to spray on rocks to make them shiny?
- 24 Can you reuse rock tumbling media?
- 25 How long does tumbling media last?
- 26 Can I reuse ceramic media rock tumbling?
- 27 Can you put Jewelry with stones in a Tumbler?
- 28 What is an advantage of tumbling jewellery?
- 29 Does tumbling work harden metal?
- 30 Environmental Protection & Energy Saving
- 31 Safety Tips
- 32 FAQs
- 33 Conclusion