Typically, three to four layers of Gesso are applied to a canvas before painting begins. Each layer should be allowed to dry thoroughly before the next is applied. This helps ensure an even application and a sturdy, consistent surface for your artwork. It’s also important to sand each layer lightly with a fine grit sandpaper after it has dried completely in order to create an ideal smooth surface for painting on.
Once the desired number of layers have been applied and smoothed out, let the canvas sit for at least 24 hours so that all of the layers can come together. Once this has happened, you can now begin priming the canvas with paint or gels such as Golden Absorbent Ground and Gamblin Acrylic Ground. These products act as a primer and can also help to improve the overall quality of your work by providing additional protection from fading, cracking and buckling.
Once you have completed your priming step, you are ready to start painting on your canvas. Your finished artwork will benefit greatly from all of the prep work that has gone into it prior to this point, so take care when painting – each brushstroke is important! With patience and practice, soon you’ll be able to create beautiful works of art with ease. Good luck!
How many times should you Gesso a Canvas?
The number of times you should Gesso your canvas depends on the desired effect you want to achieve. Generally, a single layer of Gesso is enough for most uses, although some artists prefer to apply multiple layers of Gesso to the canvas for a smoother finish. If you are looking for a thicker texture, then adding more than one layer is recommended. It is important to remember that each additional layer of Gesso will add weight and thickness to the painting surface, so be sure to consider this when selecting a canvas size.
When applying multiple layers of Gesso, it’s best to wait until each coat has dried before adding the next; this will help ensure an even coverage and reduce any unsightly lumps and bumps. Once the Gesso has been applied and dried, you can then start painting your masterpiece!
It is important to note that Gesso acts as a priming agent for canvas, helping to protect the fabric from deterioration due to environmental factors such as moisture or dust. For this reason, it is best not to skimp on applying multiple layers of Gesso if necessary; if you do opt for fewer layers, be sure to keep your painting area well-ventilated in order to avoid any potential issues. With the right care, your canvas should last you many years!
So there you have it – how many times should you apply Gesso on a canvas? Generally speaking, a single layer of Gesso is enough for most uses; however, some artists prefer to apply multiple layers in order to achieve a smoother finish. Be sure to consider the weight and thickness that each additional coat adds when selecting a canvas size, and always wait until each layer has completely dried before applying the next. With the right care, your masterpiece should last you many years!
Hope this helps! 🙂
Is 2 layers of Gesso enough?
Most artists recommend applying two coats of gesso to a canvas before painting. However, depending on the type and thickness of your gesso, you may need more than two layers. If you use an acrylic-based gesso or a thick gel medium, one coat is usually enough. For oil paints, however, it’s best to apply at least two layers of thinner gesso before painting. This ensures that the surface will be even and able to hold up against oils over time.
In general, it’s always better to err on the side of caution when it comes to Gesso on Canvas and apply more layers than less. After all, this is what protects your artwork from damage so it’s important to get it right the first time!
If you’re uncertain, a great rule of thumb is to start with two coats and go from there. This will give you a good foundation and you can always add more if needed. Remember, adding too much gesso won’t damage your canvas – just make sure that each coat is completely dry before applying the next.
At the end of the day, how many layers of gesso you need on your canvas depends largely on what type of paint or medium you plan to use. But for most applications two coats should be enough to provide a strong barrier between your artwork and any potential damage. So don’t be afraid to experiment with different types and thicknesses of gesso to find the right combination for your project.
Good luck and happy painting!
How long should you wait between Gesso layers?
It’s important to wait at least 24 hours between each layer of Gesso applied to the canvas. This allows the previous layer to dry and set properly, ensuring a strong bond between layers. If this is not done, the subsequent layers may not adhere correctly and create a weak, uneven surface. Depending on humidity levels, it might take up to 36-48 hours for each Gesso layer to fully cure before applying a new one. To ensure proper adhesion, it’s best practice to lightly sand or scuff the previous layer before adding a new one. Each additional coat will give the painting surface more strength, durability and opacity. A minimum of 3 coats of gesso is recommended for most professional artwork; however if an ultra-smooth finish is desired, up to 5 coats can be applied. Applying too many layers of Gesso can actually work against you, as it creates a surface that may appear too thick and inflexible which can lead to cracking or other damage to the painting over time.
When applying multiple Gesso layers to canvas, it’s also important to consider the absorbency of the fabric being used. A tightly woven or highly primed canvas might require more coats for a smooth finish compared to a loosely woven fabric with minimal priming. An experienced artist should have no problem determining how many layers are necessary for their particular project – once you’ve developed a feel for the medium, you’ll soon learn what works best for your own painting style.
No matter what type of canvas you decide to use, the key is to take your time and be patient – with each additional layer comes a higher level of quality for your artwork!
Should I sand between layers of Gesso?
When applying multiple coats of gesso to a canvas, it is not necessary to sand between the layers. After each layer has dried completely, you can go ahead and apply the next coat. Sanding between the layers would actually serve to create more texture on the canvas which may not be desirable for some paintings.
However, if you choose to sand between coats, make sure you use fine-grit sandpaper and gently sand in one direction only. This will help avoid creating an uneven surface that may impact your painting later on. Additionally, take care not to press too hard when sanding as this could damage your canvas or cause debris from other surfaces to get embedded into it.
As a general rule of thumb, it is best to apply two or three coats of gesso for a smooth and consistent surface. However, if you are painting a large canvas, it is recommended that you apply up to five layers of gesso as this will help ensure an even coverage.
It is also important to note that when applying the final few coats of gesso, it’s essential to wait until each layer has dried completely before applying the subsequent coat. This will help prevent the gesso from cracking or peeling over time. After completing your desired number of coats, make sure you finish off with one additional very thin coat – this will provide an extra level of protection for your painting in the long run.
In conclusion, while it is not necessary to sand between layers of gesso, it can help achieve a smoother finish on your canvas. However, care should be taken when doing so in order to avoid damaging the canvas. The recommended number of coats for a large canvas is five, with an additional final very thin coat for protection.
Can you apply too much Gesso?
Applying too much Gesso to a canvas can result in a thick, uneven surface. This can make it difficult to apply paint evenly and create smooth transitions between colors. It may also lead to cracking of the Gesso layer due to uneven pressure from the paintbrush or palette knife when applying paint. To avoid this problem, two layers are usually sufficient for most painting techniques; however, three or more layers may be necessary for highly detailed work. Between each layer of Gesso, allow the previous coat to dry completely before applying the next one. Doing so will ensure that all layers stick together properly and provide an even surface for painting. Additionally, sanding between coats is often recommended as it helps fill any tiny cracks and gives the canvas a smoother finish.
In general, you can use as many layers of Gesso as needed to achieve the desired results; however, too many layers may lead to problems like cracking or uneven paint application. Therefore, it’s best to start with two or three coats and then experiment with additional layers if necessary. Taking the time to apply several thin coats instead of one thick coat is also important for creating a smooth surface for painting. In any case, make sure each layer is completely dry before proceeding to the next one. Following these steps will help ensure that the Gesso provides an ideal base for your artwork!
How long do you leave Gesso on Canvas before painting?
Typically, you should let the Gesso dry for at least 24 hours before painting on top of it. This allows the Gesso to fully set and form a strong base for your painting. If you try to paint too soon after applying the Gesso, it may not adhere properly and can cause problems with your painting down the line.
If you are using multiple layers of Gesso on your canvas, you should wait at least an hour between each layer for the previous coat to dry completely before adding another one. For best results, leave each layer of Gesso to dry overnight before continuing with more coats. Doing this will ensure that all coats are evenly distributed and harden correctly as they should.
It’s important to note that the number of coats you need depends on the type of Gesso and the materials you are using. If your canvas is especially porous, more layers may be needed to create a solid surface for painting. On the other hand, if you are using a less absorbent canvas or thicker Gesso, fewer layers may suffice. Ultimately, it’s up to you to experiment with different combinations until you find the right amount of Gesso for your specific project.
With proper application and patience, you can ensure that your Gesso sets correctly and creates a strong base for your painting!
How many layers of Gesso should an artist use?
The number of layers of Gesso an artist should apply to a canvas depends on several factors, including the type and size of the canvas, as well as the desired look and feel. Generally speaking, three or more coats are recommended for a medium-sized canvas (up to 18” x 24”). For larger canvases, four or more coats may be necessary.
Gesso is used to prime a canvas before painting because it serves several purposes. It increases the absorbency of the surface so that paint will adhere better and last longer; it provides a smoother painting surface; and it eliminates any discoloration or texture in the weave of the canvas fabric. Applying multiple layers helps create an even smoother surface on which to paint.
When applying Gesso, it is important to ensure that each layer is completely dry before applying the next coat. Using a hair dryer can speed the drying process, but make sure all areas are evenly dried. Applying too many coats of Gesso can lead to cracking, so it’s best to use only as many layers as you need for your desired effect.
Ultimately, the number of Gesso layers an artist should apply will depend on their preference and desired results. With proper application and care however, one or more coats of Gesso will help provide a prime surface for painting on canvas.
This article intends to provide general information about how many layers of Gesso an artist should use on a canvas. The exact number may vary depending on the size and type of canvas, as well as the desired look and feel. Ultimately, it’s best to experiment with different layers until you find what works best for your project. Many artists are able to achieve excellent results with only two or three coats of Gesso, so don’t be afraid to start with fewer and slowly add more if needed. Good luck!
Will Gesso crack on Canvas?
When using gesso on canvas, the number of layers applied is up to the individual artist. Generally speaking, two or three coats of gesso are recommended, although some artists will add additional coats if they feel it necessary.
Gesso is a flexible material and typically does not crack or peel off canvas when used correctly. However, if too many layers of gesso are applied or it is applied in thick layers then there can be cracking issues as the material dries. It’s best to apply thin even layers and make sure each coat has had adequate time to dry before adding another. Additionally, it’s important to keep the canvas properly stretched so that the tension does not cause cracking over time.
Ultimately, it’s up to the individual artist and their preference as to how many layers of gesso they use on canvas. However, following these tips will help ensure that cracking is minimized and the painting surface remains stable for a long time.
Should Gesso be thick or thin?
There is no definitive answer when it comes to the ideal thickness of Gesso on canvas. Generally, two or three thin layers are usually adequate for most painting projects. However, depending on the type of artwork you’re creating and the canvas’s current condition, you may need to apply more or fewer coats. For example, a thicker application will be needed if your canvas is particularly rough or has been previously used for a different painting project. Additionally, some artists prefer to use several thin coats of Gesso over one thick coat as this allows for better control and smoother texture when working on delicate details in their artwork. Ultimately, it is up to you as an artist to determine how many layers of Gesso will work best for your project. Be sure to make note of the results each time you apply a coat and adjust accordingly!
No matter how many coats or thicknesses of Gesso you use, be sure to let each layer dry completely before applying the next one. This will ensure that the layers adhere properly and do not create any bubbles or other inconsistencies. Additionally, sanding in between applications is recommended as this will help smooth out any lumps or bumps that may form due to an uneven surface. If you are looking for a professional finish, it can also be helpful to lightly sand after all coats have been applied. With these tips in mind, you’ll be able to achieve a beautiful work of art on canvas with confidence!
Does Gesso need 24 hours to dry?
Although Gesso can be dry to the touch in around two hours, it is recommended that you wait 24 hours before applying any oil or acrylic paint to the canvas. This ensures that any oil or acrylic paint layers will adhere properly and last longer without cracking or peeling.
It is possible to apply multiple thin coats of Gesso – usually no more than three – with a brush or roller within a few days, depending on temperature and humidity levels. After each coat has dried for at least 24 hours, sand lightly with fine-grain sandpaper and wipe with a damp cloth before adding the next layer. Completing multiple thin coats of Gesso on canvas will ensure an even finish and best results when painting.
In the end, the amount of Gesso you put on your canvas will depend on your own personal preference. If you are looking for a smooth, thick finish with no visible texture or weave of the canvas, then two to three coats should work just fine. However, if you want a more textured look and feel, you can use up to five coats of Gesso. Whatever quantity you choose to apply – one coat or five – be sure to give each layer enough time to dry before applying the next one.
What happens if you don’t Gesso your Canvas?
If you don’t use Gesso on your canvas, the paint won’t adhere properly and you may end up with a sloppy, uneven result. The colors will be duller too — it’s almost like painting on paper instead of on a proper surface. Without a good base coat of Gesso, your colors will not look vibrant and the texture of the canvas will not show in the painting. You may also find that over time, your painting starts to crack or flake off as the paint ages. Finally, without Gesso you are more likely to experience poor adhesion between layers as new paints are added onto existing layers.
When applying Gesso to a canvas, two or three even layers are typically recommended. It’s important to wait until the first layer is completely dry before adding more because if the canvas is still wet, it can weaken the Gesso and cause it to crack. Make sure that you don’t use too much Gesso per layer or else you will end up with an overly heavy coating that won’t respond well to paint application. This can also impact the texture of your painting, so be sure to apply thin enough coats that you still have a little bit of tooth in the canvas when starting to paint. If you do this right, your painting will look great now and hold up for years to come!
Should I Gesso both sides of Canvas?
It is generally recommended to gesso both sides of your canvas for a few reasons. First, it provides an even and consistent surface on both sides of the canvas, preventing any warping or distorting as the paint dries. Second, it strengthens the canvas material and prevents oil paints from seeping through. Finally, multiple layers of gesso will also create a smoother surface that can help you achieve a more precise and professional result in your painting.
When applying gesso to both sides of your canvas, it is important to ensure that each side has an even number of layers – usually two to four coats are sufficient. You should apply each layer with a brush and allow the first coat to dry completely before beginning another.
It can also be beneficial to sand your canvas lightly between each coat of gesso for a super-smooth finish. Use very fine grit sandpaper and apply only gentle pressure to avoid damaging the surface of the canvas.
In summary, it is usually recommended to apply two to four layers of gesso on both sides of your canvas for best results in your painting project!
Can I use Gesso instead of white acrylic paint?
Yes, you can use Gesso instead of white acrylic paint. Gesso is a primer, which seals the canvas and provides a barrier between the painting surface and any oil or acrylic paints that are applied later on. It also helps to create an even painting surface, making it easier to blend colors together. Generally speaking, two layers of Gesso should be applied before beginning a painting project on canvas. This will provide sufficient protection for the canvas and ensure that your finished product looks its best. Additionally, if desired, you can add extra coats of Gesso in order to further protect or enhance your work. Depending on the type of work you’re doing, more than two coats may be necessary in order to achieve the desired effect. Ultimately, it’s up to you as the artist to determine how much Gesso your canvas needs for optimum results.
How thick should Gesso be?
When applying Gesso on Canvas, it is important to consider the thickness of the coat. Ideally, two layers of Gesso should be applied for best results. Depending on the desired finished look, one thicker layer or multiple thin layers may also suffice. Generally speaking, each layer of Gesso should be between 0.3 and 0.5 millimeters thick in order to provide a good base for painting on canvas.
If applying multiple thin coats, it is important to allow ample time for each layer to dry completely before adding another coat. This will ensure that the canvas remains flat and even throughout the application process and give your finished work an even surface with no blisters or brushmarks present.
It is also important to note that the application of Gesso on Canvas is a highly individualized process and will vary from artist to artist. Experimenting with various layers and thicknesses may be necessary in order to find what works best for you and your particular style of painting.
Ultimately, two or three layers of Gesso applied between 0.3 and 0.5 millimeters thick should provide an adequate base for painting on canvas. This will ensure that you can create beautiful artwork without worrying about blisters, brushmarks, or uneven surfaces ruining your masterpiece!
Why is my Gesso peeling?
Gesso can peel off canvas if it is not applied correctly. The most common reasons for peeling gesso include applying too thin of a layer, using a low-quality product, or using water-based gesso on an oil-primed canvas.
It is recommended to use two coats of medium-to-high quality acrylic gesso when priming a canvas and allow each coat to dry before adding the next one. This will ensure that the primer is securely adhered to the canvas, and less likely to crack or peel in the future. If you’re working with oil paint, then an oil-based primer should be used instead of water-based gesso.
Finally, it’s important to note that even when the proper number of layers and quality of gesso have been applied correctly, peeling may still occur due to environmental factors. High humidity or extreme changes in temperature can cause problems with adhesion over time. If this happens, then an additional layer of primer should be applied for more secure coverage.
By following these steps, you can ensure that your canvas is properly primed with gesso and will last for many years to come!
Does Gesso give texture?
Gesso is a paint primer used to prepare surfaces such as canvas, wood, and metal for painting. It consists of an acrylic base with chalk or gypsum filler and can be applied in either one or multiple layers. Applying multiple layers of Gesso gives the surface more texture, which may be beneficial if you plan on creating a textured painting. Generally speaking, it is recommended to use at least two coats of Gesso on canvas before beginning your artwork.
The amount of Gesso you should use does depend on the texture you want for your work and how much paint will be applied in the end. If using oil paints, three coats are typically advised due to their thicker consistency and longer drying time. For acrylics, two coats should be sufficient. While Gesso does provide texture, it is important to remember that there are other materials you can use to create a variety of textures on your canvas.
Sanding between Gesso layers can help roughen up the surface and applying multiple colors of Gesso will also give your canvas more depth and dimension. Experimenting with the different techniques available to you can help you achieve the desired result for your painting project!
Overall, how many layers of Gesso one should apply on their canvas is ultimately up to personal preference. The amount used will depend on the texture desired as well as what type of paint is being applied in the end. By experimenting with various techniques such as sanding and applying multiple colors, you can create a unique piece that is all your own!
Do you wet your brush when using Gesso?
Gesso is a white acrylic-based compound that serves as a primer for painting on canvas and other surfaces. It can be used directly from the tube, or it can be thinned with water to create different textures and effects. The typical number of layers of gesso applied to a canvas is three coats, allowing each layer to dry before the next one is applied.
When using gesso, you do not need to wet your brush. Gesso has an acrylic base, so it works best when brushed onto the surface while it is still dry. When applying multiple layers of gesso, however, you may find that lightly misting the canvas with water between coats helps them adhere better and also softens the texture of the gesso. Once all layers are applied, however, it is important to let them dry entirely before starting to paint on your canvas.
Gesso provides a perfect base for painting and can be used with oil paints, watercolors, acrylics and other mediums as well. Keeping in mind that multiple layers should be applied allows you to create the most ideal painting surface possible!
Can you Gesso over an already painted Canvas?
Yes, you can gesso over a canvas that has already been painted. Before applying the gesso, use a piece of fine-grit sandpaper to scuff up the surface of the painted canvas in order for the gesso to properly adhere. After prepping the canvas, apply two or three layers of gesso, allowing each layer to dry before adding another one. This will ensure that your painting is securely sealed and protected from damage caused by dust and dirt buildup. Additionally, layering on multiple coats of gesso can help create an ideal painting surface for oil or acrylic paints and also provide additional texture for mixed media projects. Overall, using gesso on a previously painted canvas can save time and effort when starting a new painting or project.
It is important to remember that the number of layers and the amount of gesso needed to prepare a canvas will vary depending on how much paint and other materials are being used. Generally, two or three thin coats are sufficient for creating a good base layer on any canvas. However, if you plan to use thick textures in your artwork, it’s best to apply at least three thick layers of gesso before working with your paints. This will help ensure that your work is well-protected against dust and dirt buildup while providing an ideal surface to use when painting. Finally, be sure to allow ample time for each layer of gesso to dry completely before adding another one; otherwise, your painting may be at risk of being damaged.
Overall, gessoing a canvas before starting a painting or project can help ensure that it is properly protected and provide an ideal surface for painting. When applying gesso to a previously painted canvas, use fine-grit sandpaper to scuff up the surface before adding two or three thin coats (or three thick coats if using thicker materials). Additionally, make sure to give ample time for the gesso to dry between layers in order to prevent damage from occurring. With this knowledge in mind, you’ll be able to achieve the best results possible with your next painting!
Environmental Protection & Energy Saving
When painting on canvas, it is important to use the right number of layers of Gesso when preparing the surface. Typically, at least three coats of Gesso should be applied in order to protect the canvas from damage such as cracking and peeling. Applying too many layers can lead to excessive energy expenditure during the drying process and create an unnecessarily thick layer that impairs the ultimate quality of the artwork. To ensure optimal results and avoid wasting time or materials, use only three coats of Gesso when prepping a canvas for paint. Furthermore, take care to dispose of any leftover Gesso responsibly so as not to harm our environment. With proper preparation and responsible disposal methods, we can help conserve resources while still creating beautiful art.
- Use a face shield and mask while working with Gesso
- Wear gloves to protect your hands
- Make sure the canvas is clean before applying Gesso
- Choose an appropriate area for using Gesso, away from any materials or items that could be damaged by the chemicals contained in Gesso
- Ventilate the area you are using to ensure proper air circulation when using Gesso
- Avoid contact with skin, eyes, and mouth while handling or working with Gesso
Gesso is a thick white paint-like substance that provides an ideal canvas surface for painting. It creates a smooth and even surface, and can also be used to prime other materials like wood or metal. When applying gesso to canvas, it is important to understand the different types of layers that you should use and how many of them are necessary for optimal results.
Best Practices for Applying Gesso on Canvas
When applying gesso to canvas, the best practice is to apply multiple thin layers of gesso. Generally, 3 to 4 layers should be applied with light sanding in between each layer. This results in a smoother and more consistent surface that will also provide greater protection against damage. Each layer of gesso should be allowed to dry completely before adding the next layer. When painting on top of the gessoed canvas, it’s important to use an acrylic paint as other paints may not adhere properly or may crack when drying.
The number of layers of gesso you decide to apply will depend on what type of canvas material you’re using and your desired outcome. If you’re using a heavier grade canvas then 3 to 4 coats of gesso should suffice. If you’re using a lighter grade canvas then 4 to 5 coats are recommended. Additionally, if you’re looking for extra protection against cracking and damage, you may choose to apply more layers.
No matter how many layers you decide to apply, make sure that each layer is evenly spread over the canvas and given plenty of time to dry before moving on to the next layer. Doing this will ensure your painting project is successful! Good luck and happy painting!
How many layers of Gesso should I use on canvas?
Generally, two to three coats of gesso are recommended when painting on canvas. This will provide an even and consistent surface for your artwork. After the first coat of gesso has dried completely, sand the surface lightly with a fine-grit sandpaper before applying another layer. If desired, you can also apply more than three layers for additional protection and texture. Additionally, it is important to consider what paints and mediums you will be using as some require more or less coverage from gesso in order to ensure good adhesion. As always, when working with any type of paint or coating product, be sure to read the manufacturer's safety instructions and use the appropriate safety equipment. Happy painting! 🙂
How long does Gesso take to dry?
The drying time for gesso depends on the temperature and humidity of your environment, as well as the thickness of the coat. Generally, a thin layer of gesso can dry within minutes while a thicker layer may require up to 24 hours to fully cure. Additionally, it is important to note that some types of gesso may have different drying times so be sure to read the product labels when shopping. If you are in a hurry and need your artwork surface ready quickly, there are also fast-drying options available. In any case, it is best practice to let each layer dry completely before applying additional ones. Happy painting! 🙂
How can I fix mistakes when using Gesso?
If you make a mistake while applying gesso, the best way to fix it is to simply sand it down and start over. It is important to allow the layer to dry completely before attempting any sanding or touch-ups as this will ensure that the surface remains even and free from smudges or imperfections. Additionally, it is always best practice to use a fine grit sandpaper for removing any unwanted marks. Happy painting! 🙂
In conclusion, the number of layers of gesso you should use on canvas depends on a variety of factors. The type of painting and the surface quality of your canvas will determine how many coats are necessary. Generally, two to three layers are best for most paintings. However, some artists may prefer four or more depending on their needs. If in doubt, always practice caution when applying additional layers. Applying too much can lead to an uneven surface and weaken the structural integrity of your artwork. Make sure to allow each layer to dry before moving onto the next one and never rush through this process! With patience and practice, you’ll be able to discover just the right amount for your needs.
- 1 How many times should you Gesso a Canvas?
- 2 Is 2 layers of Gesso enough?
- 3 How long should you wait between Gesso layers?
- 4 Should I sand between layers of Gesso?
- 5 Can you apply too much Gesso?
- 6 How long do you leave Gesso on Canvas before painting?
- 7 How many layers of Gesso should an artist use?
- 8 Will Gesso crack on Canvas?
- 9 Should Gesso be thick or thin?
- 10 Does Gesso need 24 hours to dry?
- 11 What happens if you don’t Gesso your Canvas?
- 12 Should I Gesso both sides of Canvas?
- 13 Can I use Gesso instead of white acrylic paint?
- 14 How thick should Gesso be?
- 15 Why is my Gesso peeling?
- 16 Does Gesso give texture?
- 17 Do you wet your brush when using Gesso?
- 18 Can you Gesso over an already painted Canvas?
- 19 Environmental Protection & Energy Saving
- 20 Safety Tips
- 21 Basic Terms
- 22 Best Practices for Applying Gesso on Canvas
- 23 FAQs
- 24 Conclusion